How to form the past participle in French?
The past participle in French is used to form compound tenses, such as the passé composé. It is also used to form the passive voice. In order to form the past participle in French, you need to know the regular conjugation patterns and the irregular verbs.
Here is a lesson for beginners with many examples on how to form the past participle in French.
Regular Conjugation Patterns
- Verbs ending in -er The past participle of verbs ending in -er is formed by replacing -er with -é. For example:
parler (to speak) – parlé (spoken) manger (to eat) – mangé (eaten)
- Verbs ending in -ir The past participle of verbs ending in -ir is formed by replacing -ir with -i. For example:
finir (to finish) – fini (finished) choisir (to choose) – choisi (chosen)
- Verbs ending in -re The past participle of verbs ending in -re is formed by replacing -re with -u. For example:
vendre (to sell) – vendu (sold) attendre (to wait) – attendu (waited)
- Avoir (to have) – eu (had)
- Etre (to be) – été (been)
- Faire (to do) – fait (done)
- Aller (to go) – allé (gone)
- Venir (to come) – venu (come)
- Dire (to say) – dit (said)
- Prendre (to take) – pris (taken)
- Savoir (to know) – su (known)
- Pouvoir (to be able to) – pu (been able to)
- Devoir (to have to) – dû (had to)
- Je suis allé(e) à la plage hier. (I went to the beach yesterday.)
- Nous avons mangé un bon repas hier soir. (We ate a good meal last night.)
- Tu as fini tes devoirs? (Have you finished your homework?)
- Ils ont vendu leur maison. (They sold their house.)
- Elle a su la vérité. (She found out the truth.)
Note: The past participle agrees in gender and number with the direct object pronoun when used in compound tenses or in the passive voice.
In conclusion, the past participle is an important aspect of French grammar and is used to form compound tenses and the passive voice. Regular verbs follow conjugation patterns, while irregular verbs must be memorized.
By following the rules and examples provided, you will be able to form the past participle correctly and effectively in French.